12 - Common Records


A very interesting discussion of monuments found in Spain begins on page 22. In the year 1480 at Saguntum, Spain, "a Hebrew epitaph" of great antiquity was discovered. It reads, 'This is the grave of Adoniram, the servant of King Solomon, who came to collect the tribute, and died on the day...' (page 23) This Adoniram is mentioned in both I Kings 5:14 and 4:6, "and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute." From this we understand that Adoniram was sent by Solomon to the Hebrew colony in Spain, where raw materials were collected for the Temple and other building projects in Palestine. This large stone sepulchre has been called, "the stone of Solomon's collector."

Don't think the reader that the ocean is flat for those flying to enjoy the view, but for those involved in a monstrous war as the World War II also, let's read the words of teacher Charles Hapgood in his Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, page 51:

Strong support for this hypothesis is provided by a comparison of the Piri Re'is Map with a modern map of the world drawn on a polar edquidistant projection (see figs. 25,26,27) This map was drawn for the use of the Air Force during World War II. It was centered at Cairo, Egypt, because an important U.S. air base was located there. Since Cairo is not far from the center of the Piri Re'is world projection, this modern map gives us a good idea of what the world would look like a on projection of this kind centered on Egypt. If we look at Cuba on this equidistant map, we notice that it appears to run at right angles to a latitude line drawn through Cairo. In others words, if we regard the map as representing a flat surface, then Cuba runs north and south, just as it seems to run with reference to the main projection of the Piri Re'is Map. Furthermore, in both cases we see Cuba much too far north.

I scanned the map and put color on it

This map seems strange, doesn't it?, and the following one seems the right one:

But when you think a little bit about it, Russian and Alaska are not too far as the last map shows (Alaska was Russian):

Alaska... About 500 miles (800 kilometers) of Canada territory separate Alaska from the state of Washington. Alaskans often refer to the rest of the continental United States as the "lower 48." Alaska also sits very close to Russia, only 51 miles (82 kilometers) of the Bering Straight separate the two.

Then we start understanding that the map that we have used from the elementary school is not an equidistant representation of the distances among the different parts of the earth, but it is a powerful tool to deceive us miserably making us to believe in a distorted reality. How many other things are hidden or distorted in our maps?

Hapgood makes a great effort trying to adapt Piri Re'is charts to the system of latitude and longitud as used today, but those men didn't use that, because they had flat water in every place where they went.

Piri Re'is had some notes on his charts, and he never speaks of curved waters, or degrees, or latitude. I just copy some lines:

For instance, a book fell into the hands of the said Colombo, and be found it said in this book that at the end of the Western Sea [Atlantic] that is, on its western side, there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones. The abovementioned, having studied this book thoroughly, explained these matters one by one to the great of Genoa and said: "Come, give me two ships, let me go and find these places." They said: "O unprofitable man, can an end or a limit be found to the Western Sea? Its vapour is full of darkness." The above-mentioned Colombo saw that no help was forthcoming from the Genoese, he sped forth, went to the Bey of Spain [king], and told his tale in detail. They too answered like the Genoese. In brief Colombo petitioned these people for a long time, finally the Bey of Spain gave him two ships, saw that they were well equipped, and said:

"O Colombo, if it happens as you say, let us make you kapudan [admiral] to that country." Having said which be sent the said Colombo to the Western Sea

The late Gazi Kemal had a Spanish slave. The above-mentioned slave said to Kemal Reis, be bad been three times to that land with Colombo. He said: "First we reached the Strait of Gibraltar, then from there straight south and west between the two . . . [illegible]. Having advanced straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea was becalmed and the North Star-the seamen on their compasses still say star-little by little was veiled and became invisible, and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged as here. They are seen in a different arrangement. They anchored at the island which they had seen earlier across the way, the population of the island came, shot arrows at them and did not allow them to land and ask for information. The males and the females shot hand arrows. The tips of these arrows were made of fish bones, and the whole population went naked and also very . . . [illegible]. Seeing that they could not land on that island; they crossed to the other side of the island, they saw a boat. On seelng them; the boat fled and they [the people in the boat] dashed out on land. They [the Spaniards] took the boat. They saw that inside of it there was human flesh. It happened that these people were of that nation which went from island to island hunting men and eating them. They said Colombo saw yet another island, they neared it, they saw that on that island there were great snakes. They avoided landing on this island and remained there seventeen days. The people of this island saw that no harm came to them from this boat, they caught fish and brought it to them in their small ship's boat [filika]. These [Spaniards] were pleased and gave them glass beads. It appears that he [Columbus] had read-in the book that in that region glass beads were valued. Seeing the beads they brought still more fish. These [Spaniards] always gave them glass beads. One day they saw gold around the arm of a woman, they took the gold and gave her beads. They said to them, to bring more gold, we will give you more beads, [they said]. They went and brought them much gold. It appears that in their mountains there were gold mines. One day, also, they saw pearls in the hands of one person. They saw that when; they gave beads, many more pearls were brought to them. Pearls were found on the shore of this island, in a spot one or two fathoms deep. And also loading their ship with many logwood trees and taking two natives along, they carried them within that year to the Bey of Spain. But the said Colombo, not knowing the language of these people, they traded by signs, and after this trip the Bey of Spain sent priests and barley, taught the natives how to sow and reap and converted them to his own religion. They had no religion of any sort. They walked naked and lay there like animals. Now these regions have been opened to all and have become famous. The names which mark the places on the said islands and coasts were given by Colombo, that these places may be known by them. And also Colombo was a great astronomer. The coasts and island on this map are taken from Colombo's map.

Whoever (person or sect) wrote that book knew very well that at the end of the western side of the Western Sea there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones. .... and glass beads were valued, which clearly shows us that Columbus and his men were not the firsts. And whosoever wrote that book knew that those coasts was not India: Columbus took with him boxes of glass beads because he knew where he was going to.


Two thousand years before Columbus, Herodotus mentioned the Atlantic Sea:

... This is a sea by itself, not joined to the other sea. For that on which the Greeks sail, and the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles, which they call Atlantic, and the Red Sea, are all one

Plato mentions the Atlantic Ocean, The Atlantic Island, the true ocean (the Pacif), others Islands in the West beyond the Atlantic Island, and beyond the boundless Continent, which is basically the picture of the equidistant projection of the Air Force Map:

Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your state in our histories. But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour. For these histories tell of a mighty power which unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end. This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable; and there was an island situated in front of the straits which are by you called the Pillars of Heracles; the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together, and was the way to other islands, and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean; for this sea which is within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbour, having a narrow entrance, but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a boundless continent.

Powers of the Atlantis Island had conquered some of the nations of that boundless continent

Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire which had rule over the whole island and several others, and over parts of the continent, and, furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia. This vast power, gathered into one, endeavoured to subdue at a blow our country and yours and the whole of the region within the straits; and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind.

Plato says that all parts (other nations) had business with Atlantis Island:

Enough of the plan of the royal palace. Leaving the palace and passing out across the three you came to a wall which began at the sea and went all round: this was everywhere distant fifty stadia from the largest zone or harbour, and enclosed the whole, the ends meeting at the mouth of the channel which led to the sea. The entire area was densely crowded with habitations; and the canal and the largest of the harbours were full of vessels and merchants coming from all parts, who, from their numbers, kept up a multitudinous sound of human voices, and din and clatter of all sorts night and day

Comparing the boundless size of the western continent - the western bound of the Pacific Ocean - Atlantis (today America), Europa, Asia, and Africa are mere Islands.

The Roman Historian Aelianus Claudius (c. 175 - c. 235)also compare that extense continent with the islands Europe, Asia and Africa:

'Europe, Asia and Libya are islands which the floods of the Ocean bathe on all sides: out of the enclosure of this world there is one continent, whose extent is immense.

Aelian knew the same aerial view described by Plato

Other written testimonies

An extract preserved in Proclus, taken from a work now lost, which is quoted by Boeckh in his commentary on Plato, mentions islands in the exterior sea, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and says it was known that in one of these islands "the inhabitants preserved from their ancestors a remembrance of Atlantis, all extremely large island, which for a long time held dominion over all the islands of the Atlantic Ocean."

Ζlian, in his "Varia Historia" (book iii., chap. xviii.), tells us that Theopompus (400 B.C.) related the particulars of an interview between Midas, King of Phrygia, and Silenus, in which Silenus reported the existence of a great continent beyond the Atlantic, "larger than Asia, Europe, and Libya together." He stated that a race of men called Meropes dwelt there, and had extensive cities. They were persuaded that their country alone was a continent. Out of curiosity some of them crossed the ocean and visited the Hyperboreans.

"The Gauls possessed traditions upon the subject of Atlantis which were collected by the Roman historian Timagenes, who lived in the first century before Christ. He represents that three distinct people dwelt in Gaul: 1. The indigenous population, which I suppose to be Mongoloids, who had long dwelt in Europe; 2. The invaders from a distant island, which I understand to be Atlantis; 3. The Aryan Gauls." ("Preadamites," p. 380.)

Marcellus, in a work on the Ethiopians, speaks of seven islands lying in the Atlantic Ocean--probably the Canaries--and the inhabitants of these islands, he says, preserve the memory of a much greater island, Atlantis, "which had for a long time exercised dominion over the smaller ones." (Didot Mόller, "Fragmenta Historicorum Grζcorum," vol. iv., p. 443.)

Diodorus Siculus relates that the Phoenicians discovered "a large island in the Atlantic Ocean, beyond the Pillars of Hercules, several days' sail from the coast of Africa. This island abounded in all manner of riches. The soil was exceedingly fertile; the scenery was diversified by rivers, mountains, and forests. It was the custom of the inhabitants to retire during the summer to magnificent country-houses, which stood in the midst of beautiful gardens. Fish and game were found in great abundance; the climate was delicious, and the trees bore fruit at all seasons of the year." Homer, Plutarch, and other ancient writers mention islands situated in the Atlantic, "several thousand stadia from the Pillars of Hercules." Silenus tells Midas that there was another continent besides Europe, Asia, and Africa/--"a country where gold and silver are so plentiful that they are esteemed no more than we esteem iron." St. Clement, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, says that there were other worlds betond the ocean

One of Plutarch's (2nd century ad) less known works* also states quite clearly the state of affairs. He cited a document which was found in the ruins of the old city of Carthage. He said the Carthaginians knew of a "true continent" which was located far to the west of Britain. He added that "greeks" had gone there and intermarried with the local peoples. The "greeks" who lived there, laughed at the people in Europe, which they said was a mere island by comparison - while they lived on the true continent which bordered the whole west side of the Atlantic.

*Moralia XII, On The Face Of The Moon


It is well recorded in several places the long oceanic trips in ancient times:

Pharao Neco's expedition around Africa (Herodotus, Book IV, Paragraph 42)

Libya (Africa) clearly is bounded by the sea, except where it borders on Asia. Nekhau king of Egypt first discovered this and made it known. When he had abandoned the digging of the canal which leads from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, he sent Phoenicians in ships, with orders to sail on their return voyage past the Pillars of Heracles (the straits of Gibraltar) until they came into the northern sea (the Mediterranean) and so to Egypt.

If we compare these great distances traveled in those expeditions- and many others-, We see that the distance from any side of Africa or Europe to the Opposite Continent was really very, very short

Aristotle called it "a very large and fertile country, well watered by abundant streams" and he refers to the decree enacted by the senate of Carthage towards the year 509 BC intended to stem the current of emigration that had set towards the western lands, as they feared it might prove detrimental to the prosperity of their city.


The ancient meaning for ocean was the great mass of water circling all the earth as shown in the above map of the Air Force:

Herodotus, Book IV 32 - 36 As for the tale of Abaris, who is said to have been a Hyperborean, and to have gone with his arrow all round the world without once eating, I shall pass it by in silence. Thus much, however, is clear: if there are Hyperboreans, there must also be Hypernotians.

For my part, I cannot but laugh when I see numbers of persons drawing maps of the world without having any reason to guide them; making, as they do, the ocean-stream to run all round the earth, and the earth itself to be an exact circle, as if described by a pair of compasses, with Europe and Asia just of the same size. The truth in this matter I will now proceed to explain in a very few words, making it clear what the real size of each region is, and what shape should be given them.

Book II: Euterpe: The second opinion is even more unscientific than the one just mentioned, and also, if I may so say, more marvellous. It is that the Nile acts so strangely, because it flows from the ocean, and that the ocean flows all round the earth.

Book 2: The other was more unknowing than the stated but, to exaggerate in speech, more marvellous, which said it flowed from the Oceanus and contrived that and Oceanus flowed round all the earth.

Herodotus 5, 49. However, Aristagoras the despot of Miletos arrived at Sparta while Cleomenes was reigning: and accordingly with him he came to speech, having, as the Lacedemonians say, a tablet of bronze, on which was engraved a map of the whole Earth, with all the sea and all the rivers.

That is the meaning today:

The names EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA (or LIBIA) and their divisions really are very ancient, Herodotus could not find the names and data of those who putted limits and names to that great mass of land:

Herodotus 4,45 For my part I am astonished that men should ever have divided Libya, Asia, and Europe as they have, for they are exceedingly unequal. Europe extends the entire length of the other two, and for breadth will not even (as I think) bear to be compared to them... Thus all Asia, except the eastern portion, has been found to be similarly circumstanced with Libya.... But the boundaries of Europe are quite unknown, and there is not a man who can say whether any sea girds it round either on the north or on the east, while in length it undoubtedly extends as far as both the other two. For my part I cannot conceive why three names, and women's names especially, should ever have been given to a tract which is in reality one, nor why the Egyptian Nile and the Colchian Phasis (or according to others the Maeotic Tanais and Cimmerian ferry) should have been fixed upon for the boundary lines; nor can I even say who gave the three tracts their names, or whence they took the epithets ... However let us quit these matters. We shall ourselves continue to use the names which custom sanctions.


The utmost west mentioned by Ezekiel is America:

Ezekiel 27:8 And thy princes were the dwellers in Sidon, and the Aradians were thy rowers: thy wise men, O Sor, who were in thee, these were thy pilots. The elders of the Biblians, and their wise men, who were in thee, these helped thy counsel: and all the ships of the sea and their rowers traded for thee to the utmost west.

So, without any doubt, Atlantic, Europe, Asia, America, Continent, Island, Africa, Sea, Mare, West, East, South Wind, North Wind are names that comes from very old times even though many thinks are moderns.

For sure, AMERICA was the ancient name that was given for those who also named Europe, Asia, and Africa, and it was returned by that big power who destroyed all the libraries and other whitnesses in order to write a new and distorted history.


Beside the lands of the north Marco Polo also mentions an island to the east of Asia which most don't even pay attention to the location that he gives:

see the distance from China to Japan

And the Ocean Sea comes within 25 miles of the city at a place called Ganfu, where there is a town [note: since covered by the sea, which is much closer] and an excellent haven, with a vast amount of shipping which is engaged in the traffic to and from India and other foreign parts, exporting and importing many kinds of wares, by which the city benefits. And a great river [the Ts'ien T'ang] flows from the city of Kinsay to that sea-haven, by which vessels can come up to the city itself. I This river extends also to other places further inland....

Let's read the location of Chipangu:

1,500 miles distant from the continent

Now that I have told you about the ships which sail upon the ocean sea and among the isles of India, let us proceed to speak of the various wonders of India; but first and foremost I must tell you about a number of islands that there are in that part of the ocean sea where we now are, I mean the islands lying to the eastward. So let us begin with an island which is called Chipangu.

Chipangu is an island towards the east in the high seas, fifteen hundred miles distant from the continent; and a very great island it is.

Marco Polo didn't say 'distant from China' but 'from the continent', which could not be Japan, as one can check in any map of China-Japan as the above. Marco Polo meant that Chipangu really was very far from any coast of continent:

The people are white, civilized, and well favored. They are idolaters, and are dependent on nobody. And I can tell you the quantity of gold they have is endless; for they find it in their own islands, and the king does not allow it to be exported. Moreover few merchants visit the country because it is so far from the mainland, and thus it comes to pass that their gold is abundant beyond all measure.

Marco Polo still mentions some 7.000 islands very far from the continental coastline:

You must know the sea in which lie the islands of those parts is called the sea of Chin, which is as much as to say "The Sea over against Manzi." For, in the language of those isles, when they say Chin, 'tis Manzi they mean. And I tell you with regard to that eastern sea of Chin, according to what is said by the experienced pilots and mariners of those parts, there be seven thousand four hundred and fifty-nine islands in the waters frequented by the said mariners; and that is how they know the fact, for their whole life is spent in navigating that sea. And there is not one of those islands but produces valuable and odorous woods like the lign-aloe, aye and better too; and they produce also a great variety of spices. For example in those islands pepper grows as white as snow, as well as the black in great quantities. In fact the riches of those islands is something wonderful, whether in gold or precious stones, or in all manner of spicery; but they lie so far off from the mainland that it is hard to get to them. And when the ships of Zayton and Kinsay do voyage there they make vast profits by their venture.

It takes them a whole year for the voyage, going in winter and returning in summer. For in that sea there are but two winds that blow, the one that carries them outward and the other that brings them homeward: and the one of these winds blows all the winter, and the other all the summer. And you must know these regions are so far from India that it takes a long time also for the voyage thence...

Now let us have done with that region which is very inaccessible and out of the way. Moreover, Messer Marco Polo never was there.


Geneis 10:4 And the sons of Jovan, Elisa, and Tharseis, Cetians, Rhodians.
1 Chronicles 1:7 And the sons of Jovan, Helisa, and Tharsis, the Citians, and Rhodians.

Antiquities of the Jews. Book 1 - Chapter 6

1. Now they were the grandchildren of Noah, in honor of whom names were imposed on the nations by those that first seized upon them. Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz;and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Skuthians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the Grecians, are derived. Theobel founded the Theobelites, who are now called Iberes; and the Mosoxeni were founded by Mosox; now they are Cappadocians... Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta.

Greek: ... katoikizei de kai Theobêlous Theobêlos, hoitines en tois nun Ibêres kalountai...Tharsos de Tharseis: houtôs gar ekaleito to palaion hê Kilikia. sêmeion de: Tarsos gar par' autois tôn poleôn hê axiologôtatê kaleitai mêtropolis ousa to tau pros tên klêsin anti tou thêta metabalontôn.

Acts 21:39 But Paul said, indeed I am a Jew man of TARSEUS, OF CILICIA a citicen of no insignificant city, and I besech thee, allow me to speak to the people.

Jonas tried to scape to Tarseus of Cilicia

Jonah 1:3 But Jonas rose up to flee to Tharsis from the presence of the Lord. And he went down to Joppas, and found a ship going to Tharsis: and he paid his fare, and went up into it, to sail with them to Tharsis from the presence of the Lord.

Jonah 4:2 And he prayed to the Lord, and said, O Lord, were not these my words when I was yet in my land? therefore I {1} made haste to flee to Tharsis; because I knew that thou are merciful and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in kindness, and repentest of evil. {1) Gr. anticipated}

Above we read that Theobel found Iberes (Greek meaning: the celtic people of Spain), which is mentioned being different from Tharsis

Isaias 66:19 And I will leave a sign upon them, and I will send forth them that have escaped of them to the nations, to Tharsis, and Phud, and Lud, and Mosox, and to Theobel, and to Greece, and to the isles afar off, to those who have not heard my name, nor seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles.


1 Kings 9:26 even that for which king Solomon built a ship in Gasion Gaber near Aelath on the shore of the extremity of the sea in the land of Edom. And Xiram sent in the ship together with the servants of Solomon servants of his own, mariners to row, men acquainted with the sea. And they came to Sophira, and took thence a hundred and twenty talents of gold, and brought them to king Solomon.

2 Chronicles 20:36 by acting with and going to him, to build ships to go to Tharsis: and he built ships in Gasion Gaber. And Eliezer thee son of Dodia of Marisa prophesied against Josaphat, saying, Forasmuch as thou hast allied thyself with Ochozias, the Lord has broken thy work, and thy vessels have been wrecked. And they could not go to Tharsis.

1 King 16 (16:28F) And king Josaphat made a ship {6} at Tharsis to go to Sophir for gold: but it went not, for the ship was broken at Gasion Gaber. (16:28G) Then the king of Israel said to Josaphat, {7} I will send forth thy servants and my servants in the ship: but Josaphat would not.. 6) Or, for 7) Or, let me}.

1 King s 10:22 For Solomon had a ship of Tharsis in the sea with the ships of Chiram: one ship came to the king every three years out of Tharsis, laden with gold and silver, and wrought stones, and hewn stones. And Solomon increased beyond all the kings of the earth in wealth and wisdom. And all the kings of the earth sought the presence of Solomon, to hear his wisdom which the Lord had put into his heart.

Even though it could exist a city in Spain named Tharsis, however a trip from Gion Geber around the African Continent would be not wise at all, because existed the much shorter mediterranean path, which never would take three years in going and coming

2 Chronicles 9:21 For {1} a ship went for the king to Tharsis with the servants of Chiram: once every three years came vessels from Tharsis to the king, laden with gold, and silver, and {2} ivory, and apes. {1) Or, collectively, a fleet 2) Or, elephants’ teeth}

That specific Tharsis was a big isle with countries,

Psalms 72:10 (71:10) The kings of Tharsis, and the isles, shall bring presents: the kings of the Arabians and Saba shall offer gifts.

Producing a very special type ship for long way trips through the ocean sea

The ships of Tharseis

Isaias 60:9 The isles have waited for me, and the ships of Tharsis among the first, to bring thy children from afar, and their silver and their gold with them, and that for the sake of the holy name of the Lord, and because the Holy One of Israel is glorified

Psalms 48:7 (47:7) Thou wilt break the ships of Tharsis with a vehement wind.

The Tharseis had techonologies

Jeremias 10:9 Beaten silver is brought from Tharsis, gold will come from Mophaz, and the work of goldsmiths: they are all the works of craftsmen, they will clothe themselves with blue and scarlet.

Ezekiel 27:16 even men as thy merchandise, from the multitude of thy trading population, myrrh and embroidered works from Tharsis: Ramoth also and Xorxor furnished thy market.


Some people believe that Tharsis is Japan, but let's take a view to the length from the Red Sea to Japan and compare its length with the perimeter around Africa

Africa round trip is larger than the path to Japan

Let's read the words of Herodotus about the Phoencain trip around Africa, which he called Libya:

Book 4, Section 42 For my part I am astonished that men should ever have divided Libya, Asia, and Europe as they have, for they are exceedingly unequal. Europe extends the entire length of the other two, and for breadth will not even (as I think) bear to be compared to them. As for Libya, we know it to be washed on all sides by the sea, except where it is attached to Asia. This discovery was first made by Necos, the Egyptian king, who on desisting from the canal which he had begun between the Nile and the Arabian gulf [i.e., the Red Sea], sent to sea a number of ships manned by Phoenicians, with orders to make for the Pillars of Hercules, and return to Egypt through them, and by the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians took their departure from Egypt by way of the Erythraean sea, and so sailed into the southern ocean. When autumn came, they went ashore, wherever they might happen to be, and having sown a tract of land with corn, waited until the grain was fit to cut. Having reaped it, they again set sail; and thus it came to pass that two whole years went by, and it was not till the third year that they doubled the Pillars of Hercules, and made good their voyage home. On their return, they declared - I for my part do not believe them, but perhaps others may - that in sailing round Libya they had the sun upon their right hand. In this way was the extent of Libya first discovered.

It is clear that the round trip took more than two years but less than three years. Herodotus clearly says that the mariners spend a lot of time 'having sown' and 'waited until the grain was fit to cut', and 'in autum they went ashore'. For somebody that knew the path it would take less than two year the 18,950 miles of round trip.

To have an idea of the velocities reached by some ancient ships let's read about the velocity of Columbus ships:

Thursday, 11 Octuber. Steered west-southwest; and encountered a heavier sea than they had met with before in the whole voyage. Saw pardelas and a green rush near the vessel. The crew of the Pinta saw a cane and a log; they also picked up a stick which appeared to have been carved with an iron tool, a piece of cane, a plant which grows on land, and a board. The crew of the Nina saw other signs of land, and a stalk loaded with rose berries. These signs encouraged them, and they all grew cheerful. Sailed this day till sunset, twenty-seven leagues.

After sunset steered their original course west and sailed twelve miles an hour till two hours after midnight, going ninety miles, which are twenty-two leagues and a half; and as the Pinta was the swiftest sailer, and kept ahead of the Admiral, she discovered land and made the signals which had been ordered. The land was first seen by a sailor called Rodrigo de Triana, although the Admiral at ten o'clock that evening standing on the quarter-deck saw a light, but so small a body that he could not affirm it to be land; calling to Pero Gutierrez, groom of the King's wardrobe, he told him he saw a light, and bid him look that way, which he did and saw it; he did the same to Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, whom the King and Queen had sent with the squadron as comptroller, but he was unable to see it from his situation. The Admiral again perceived it once or twice, appearing like the light of a wax candle moving up and down, which some thought an indication of land. But the Admiral held it for certain that land was near; for which reason, after they had said the Salve which the seamen are accustomed to repeat and chant after their fashion, the Admiral directed them to keep a strict watch upon the forecastle and look out diligently for land, and to him who should first discover it he promised a silken jacket, besides the reward which the King and Queen had offered, which was an annuity of ten thousand maravedis. At two o'clock in the morning the land was discovered, at two leagues' distance; they took in sail and remained under the square-sail lying to till day, which was Friday, when they found themselves near a small island, one of the Lucayos, called in the Indian language Guanahani. ...Saturday, 13 October. This is a large and level island, with trees extremely flourishing, and streams of water; there is a large lake in the middle of the island, but no mountains: the whole is completely covered with verdure and delightful to behold

Columbus report 12 miles per hour, that is 288 miles per day. Which means that it would have taken less than a year to circumnavigate Africa. Captain Cook navigated 30,000 miles in three years:

Cook' first voyage (26th Aug 1769-12 July 1771) took him to Tahiti, New Zealand and Australia and other exotic places. The voyage was mainly of a scientific (astronomic and botanic) nature and was the longest journey ever made by an explorer. He set sail from Plymouth on 26th Aug 1769, travelled some 30,000 miles and charted over 5,000 miles of coastline. The ship he sailed in was called the "Endeavour". A replica of the Endeavour was built in Australia in the 1990s and sailed around the world. Here is an image of that replica:

In 1991 mister Gerald d'Aboville spent 134 days to navigate 6,200 miles rowing while alone:

The entire crossing, averaging 7,000 strokes a day, took him 134 days

Gerald d'Aboville, 1991 His rowboat, the Sector, was 26 feet long. The ocean was 6,200 miles wide. His watertight living compartment, a scant 31 inches high, contained a bunk, a one-burner stove, a ham radio, and a telex (both powered by solar panels). Fresh water came from two desalination pumps.

After months of meticulous and often frustrating preparations, d'Aboville set out from Choshi, Japan, in mid-July, already several weeks behind schedule. He rowed ten to twelve hours a day - an average of 7,000 strokes per day - battled head-winds that pushed him backward or made him stand still (once for a frill two weeks), cyclones with 100-miles-per-hour winds, and 40-foot waves that hit him like can-nonballs and sent him hurtling into troughs 30 feet deep. His boat capsized more than thirty times; once he was trapped inside his hermetic cabin, upside down, for almost two hours, with the oxy-gen almost depleted, before he managed to right the boat. Finally, 134 days after his departure, he came ashore at the little fishing village of Ilwaco, Washington. He was bruised and battered - and weighed thirty-seven pounds less -- but truly un-bowed. "I have chosen the ocean as my field of confrontation, my field of battle," writes d'Aboville, "because the ocean is reality at its toughest, its most demanding. As my weapons against this awesome power, I have human values: intelligence, experi-ence, and the stubborn will to win."

6,200 miles

134 days

At that speed in 1½ year he would have reached 46 miles/day x 548 days = 25,180 miles. Certainly with two men rowing some speed could be gained. Several strongs and expert phoenician mariners went with those of Solomon:

1 Kings 9:27 And Chiram sent in the ship together with the servants of Solomon servants of his own, mariners to row, men acquainted with the sea.

Ezekiel 27:26 Thy rowers have brought thee into great waters: the south wind has broken thee in the heart of the sea.

Sincerely I can not say the speed developed by those rowers, but for sure it was much more than that of mister Gerald d'Aboville. Let's read the description of Marco Polo of those ships to navigate the high seas:

Book Third, Chapter I: Of The Merchant Ships Of Manzi That Sail Upon The Indian Seas

Having finished our discourse concerning those countries wherewith our book has been occupied thus far, we are now about to enter on the subject of India, and to tell you of all the wonders thereof.

And first let us speak of the ships in which merchants go to and fro among the Isles of India.

These ships, you must know, are of fir timber. They have but one deck, though each of them contains some fifty or sixty cabins, wherein the merchants abide greatly at their ease, every man having one to himself. The ship has but one rudder, but it has four masts; and sometimes they have two additional masts, which they ship and unship at pleasure.

Moreover the larger of their vessels have some thirteen compartments or severances in the interior, made with planking strongly framed, in case may hap the ship should spring a leak, either by running on a rock or by the blow of a hungry whale as shall betide often, for when the ship in her course by night sends a ripple back alongside of the whale, the creature seeing the foam fancies there is something to eat afloat, and makes a rush forward, whereby it often shall stave in some part of the ship. In such case the water that enters the leak flows to the bilge, which is always kept clear; and the mariners having ascertained where the damage is, empty the cargo from that compartment into those adjoining, for the planking is so well fitted that the water cannot pass from one compartment to another. They then stop the leak and replace the lading.

The fastenings are all of good iron nails and the sides are double, one plank laid over the other, and caulked outside and in. The planks are not pitched, for those people do not have any pitch, but they daub the sides with other matter, deemed by them far better than pitch; it is this. You see they take some lime and some chopped hemp, and these they knead together with a certain wood oil; and when the three are thoroughly amalgamated, they hold like any glue. And with this mixture they paint their ships.

Each of their great ships requires at least two hundred mariners some of them three hundred. They are indeed of great size, for one ship shall carry five thousand or six thousand baskets of pepper and they used formerly to be larger than they are now. And aboard these ships, you must know, when there is no wind they use sweeps, and these sweeps are so big that to pull them requires four mariners to each. Every great ship has certain large barks or tenders attached to it; these are large enough to carry one thousand baskets of pepper, and carry fifty or sixty mariners apiece some of them eighty or one hundred, and they are likewise moved by oars; they assist the great ship by towing her, at such times as her sweeps are in use or even when she is under sail, if the wind be somewhat on the beam; not if the wind be astern, for then the sails of the ship would take the wind out of those of the tenders, and she would run them down. Each ship has two or three of these barks, but one is bigger than the others. There are also some ten small boats for the service of each great ship, to lay out the anchors, catch fish, bring supplies aboard, and the like. When the ship is under sail she carries these boats slung to her sides. And the large tenders have their boats in like manner.

When the ship has been a year in work and they wish to repair her, they nail on a third plank over the first two, and caulk and pay it well; and when another repair is wanted they nail on yet another plank, and so on year by year as it is required. However, they do this only for a certain number of years, and till there are six thickness of planking. When a ship has come to have six planks on her sides, one over the other, they take her no more on the high seas, but make use of her for coasting as long as she will last, and then they break her up.

Now that I have told you about the ships which sail upon the ocean sea and among the isles of India, let us proceed to speak of the various wonders of India; but first and foremost I must tell you about a number of islands that there are in that part of the ocean sea where we now are, I mean the islands lying to the eastward. So let us begin with an island which is called Chipangu.

So, Very far from the coastline of Eastern Asia there are a lot of Island, as Marco Polo says:

In fact the riches of those islands is something wonderful, whether in gold or precious stones, or in all manner of spicery; but they lie so far off from the mainland that it is hard to get to them. And when the ships of Zayton and Kinsay do voyage there they make vast profits by their venture.

It takes them a whole year for the voyage, going in winter and returning in summer. For in that sea there are but two winds that blow, the one that carries them outward and the other that brings them homeward: and the one of these winds blows all the winter, and the other all the summer. And you must know these regions are so far from India that it takes a long time also for the voyage thence

Now let us have done with that region which is very inaccessible and out of the way. Moreover, Messer Marco Polo never was there. And let me tell you the great Khan has nothing to do with them, nor do they render him any tribute or service.

These very far eastern places are not recorded in the maps used today.