1 - Level Water

"But, when I turned round to the east, up which the vast shadows of night were traveling, the cold ocean looked like a plain of lead; the shadow of the mighty mass of Olympus was projected twenty miles along its surface; and I stood on the very edge".


From the dictionary:

Etymology: Middle English, plumb line, from Middle French livel, from (assumed) Vulgar Latin libellum, alteration of Latin libella, from diminutive of libra weight, balance
Date: 14th century

  1. 1 : a device for establishing a horizontal line or plane by means of a bubble in a liquid that shows adjustment to the horizontal by movement to the center of a slightly bowed glass tube

  2. 2 : a measurement of the difference of altitude of two points by means of a level

  3. 3 : horizontal condition; especially : equilibrium of a fluid marked by a horizontal surface of even altitude

  4. 4a : an approximately horizontal line or surface taken as an index of altitude

  5. 4b : a practically horizontal surface or area (as of land)

  6. 5a : a line or surface that cuts perpendicularly all plumb lines that it meets and hence would everywhere coincide with a surface of still water

  7. 5b : the plane of the horizon or a line in it

"A surface that cuts perpendicularly all plumb lines that it meets and hence would everywhere coincide with a surface of still water."

If you incline the container, the water surface doesn't incline at all:

When one flies over the ocean one cannot avoid the sensation that the ocean surface is flat:

"Early wakeup. I've had problems getting a good sleep during 15 hrs flying over the ocean. Ulli is fine. We rent our survival gear, file a flight plan, preflight the aircraft, fill up the tanks and mount ourselves into the survival suits. The leg is to Rejkiavik, Iceland. Around 7.20 UTC N18AP departs Europe from Runway 13 in Wick. Climbout takes a while at gross, but after 17 mins we settle at level 110 heading to Iceland. A light tailwind gently adds to our groundspeed. The weather is clear at 110. Sometimes we pick up patches of CU and SC underneath. The Ocean is flat as a pond and the engine is running smooth..."

There is no way to convince the Mariners of anything different.

"On her way through the vast Pacific Ocean the flat and inviting waters were so appealing that HMS Cornwall's Commanding Officer, Capt Tim McClements, decided that the ship's company should not miss this opportunity to take a break from their busy operational program and cool off. "

People that work on the ocean know how flat it is:

"Are wind speeds the same over land as they are over the ocean? - When you think about it, the water surface and the land surface are quite different! The land surface is characterized by mountains, trees, buildings, plants, rocks, mud, sand, etc. The ocean surface is characterized by relatively flat water!! So, do you think wind speeds are the same over land and water?"

People working for NASA also know that the surface of the ocean is flat:

"Q18: What is the horizontal resolution of the TOPEX/Poseidon altimeters? - The measurement geometry and operation principles of the TOPEX Altimeter are very well described in D. B. Chelton, et als, "Pulse compression and sea level tracking in satellite altimetry", J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Tech., Vol 6, #3, June 1989."

"The altimeter footprint for ocean applications (or other very flat surfaces, relief less than 100 m) is determined by the compressed pulse length (3.125 nsec), the satellite altitude, and the significant wave height. At the TOPEX altitude of 1335 km, the footprint diameter varies from 2.0 km at 0 m SWH (not very realistic) to 5.5 km at 3 m SWH (typical of open ocean) to 11.7 km at 15 m SWH (about the highest observed during the TOPEX mission). "

If water's surface is flat, how can somebody force it against its nature to build up into a ball of liquid water?

Why doesn't NASA, the super-powerful Catholic Church, and the thousands of secret societies build a sphere of liquid water? That would be cheaper than their expensive brainwash program on the movies, TV, and all the formal and informal so-called education institutions.

Many would say, "Sir, you are forgetting the gravity."

Very well, let's treat gravity. But before going to the next page, let's pause to build some protractors:

Bigger protractors can be made:

The space between two short lines is just a degree - can you see them?

And still bigger:

We can make a protractor in which each degree is divided into 60 equal marks, that is, 60 minutes:

This protractor would be 3.44 meters in radius, with which one can measure 1 minute of arc.

We must remember that we are told that the earth is a sphere of equatorial radius of 6,378.164 kilometers.. This means that each 111.320 km is an arc of 1º (2*pi*6378164/360º), each 222.640 km is an arc of 2º, and so on. Each 1º can be subdivided into 60', so 111320/60' = 1855 meters per 1' of arc. So, the protractor of radius 3.44 m can detect the inclination of two columns on such a curve 1855 meters apart.

By observing what happens in one circumference, one can know what is happening in the other one.