THE POLARIS STAR The declination of the Pole Star (its angular distance from the Celestial Equator) is fixed, by definition, at +90°. However, its altitude (the angle it makes with the horizon) is not fixed, but varies according to the latitude of the observer. This is very useful for navigation in the northern hemisphere, since the altitude of the Northern Celestial Pole is always equal to the observer's own latitude: by measuring the Pole's angle to the horizon, it's possible to exactly calculate your own distance from the Earth's equator.
Spain Geographical Location Spain, together with Portugal, forms the westernmost of the three major peninsulas of southern Europe, an enormous octagonal promontory, at the extreme southwest of the continent. It is situated in a temperate area, between latitudes 43º47' 24''N. (Estaca de Bares) and 36º00' 3'' S. (Punta de Tarifa) and between longitudes 7º00' 29'' E. (Cabo de Creus) and 5º36' 40'' W. (Cabo Tourinan).
San Salvador Island Geographical Location San Salvador is located at 24°3'N latitude and 74°30'W longitude, 640 km ESE of Miami, Florida.
So, from the circumference going around the latitude 36º00'3" to the circumference going to the latitude 24º3' there are roughly 12º, which multpliplied by 111km/1º yields around 1,330 km. In the Piri Re'is notes the spanish slave that went with Colón said the following about the North Star:
Piri Re'is Notes: Having advanced straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea was becalmed and the North Star-the seamen on their compasses still say star-little by little was veiled and became invisible, and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged as here.
This means that the mariners could no see the Polaris Star at the parallel 24º, which is opposite if the star was above a sphere, as it is shown in the graph here: Being the star above the globe high as twice the diameter of the earth, the star would be seen all around the latitude 11º33'N; if it is higher it would be seen by somebody being stand on the equatorial line, according to the formula arc1 + arc2, which refers to the arc reached by the heightness of the star plus the arc reached by the heightness at which the eyes of a person is above the 'ground' (or water)
Marco Polo in his trip to the islands of China and India kept record all the time to the North Star
Chapter IX: Concerning The Island Of Java The Less, The Kingdoms Of Perlak And Pasei
When you leave the island of Pentam and sail about one hundred miles, you reach the island of Java the less. For all its name 'tis none so small but that it has a compass of two thousand miles or more. Now I will tell you all about this island.
You see there are upon it eight kingdoms and eight crowned kings. The people are all idolaters, and every kingdom has a language of its own. The island hath great abundance of treasure, with costly spices, lign-aloes and spikenard and many others that never come into our parts.
Now I am going to tell you all about these eight kingdoms, or at least the greater part of them. But let me premise one marvelous thing, and that is the fact that this island lies so far to the south that the North Star, little or much, is never to be seen!
Let's see the Indonesia Map:
Each vertical mark in the left is a degree: the Island Java the Less is located near 8º below the equatorial line - more than 500 miles. So, when Marco Polo said:
When you leave the island of Pentam and sail about one hundred miles, you reach the island of Java the less
He meant that the Pentam Island was more than 400 miles below the equatorial line, and while in that Island he still could see the North Star, because it was in the Island Java where we could not see the star at all
Let's follow Marco Polo's path from the south to the west of India
Marco Polo's description doesn't correspond with the star being very high above the north hemisphere, but it corresponds with the star being some place above a flat surface.
Marco Polo still speaks of a land beyond the north where the North Star is seen to the south of that land:
Chapter LVI: Sundry Particulars Of The Plain Beyond Karakorum
And when you leave Karakorum and the Altay, in which they bury the bodies of the Tartar sovereigns, as I told you, you go north for forty days till you reach a country called the plain of Bargu. The people there are called Mekriti; they are a very wild race, and live by their cattle, the most of which are stags, and these stags, I assure you, they used to ride upon. Their customs are like those of the Tartars, and they are subject to the great Khan. They have neither corn nor wine. They get birds for food, for the country is full of lakes and pools and marshes, which are much frequented by the birds when they are moulting, and when they have quite cast their feathers and can't fly, those people catch them. They also live partly on fish.
And when you have traveled forty days over this great plain you come to the ocean, at the place where the mountains are in which the peregrine falcons have their nests. And in those mountains it is so cold that you find neither man nor woman, nor beast nor bird, except one kind of bird called Barguerlac, on which the falcons feed. They are as big as partridges, and have feet like those of parrots and a tail like a swallow's, and are very strong in flight. And when the grand Khan wants peregrines from the nest, he sends thither to procure them. It is also on islands in the sea that the gerfalcons are bred. You must know that the place is so far to the north that you leave the north star somewhat behind you towards the south! The gerfalcons are so abundant there that the emperor can have as many as he likes to send for.
And you must not suppose that those gerfalcons which the Christians carry into the Tartar dominions go to the great Khan; they are carried only to the prince of the Levant.
THE SPHERICAL EARTH OF THE MATHEMATICIANS DOESN'T FIT MARCO POLO'S DESCRIPTION
THE POLE DOESN'T EXIST
Greely says: "There are many pages of reports (in the writings of Arctic explorers) of this open sea to the far north. Greely speaks of open water the year round. If there be open water the year round at the farthest point north, can any good reason be assigned why all have failed to reach the Pole? The men who spent their time, comfort and, in several cases, their lives, were men more than anxious to succeed, yet, strangely, all failed. Was this because the weather got warmer and they found the game more plentiful? No, it was because there is no such place."
MARCO POLO DESCRIBED A FLAT EARTH, WITH PEOPLE BEYOND THE NORTH WIND
Marco Polo described people dwelling beyond where the rays of the sun and the stars are never seen:
Chapter XX: Concerning King Kaunchi Who Rules The Far North
You must know that in the far north there is a king called Kaunchi. He is a Tartar, and all his people are Tartars, and they keep up the regular Tartar religion. A very brutish one it is, but they keep it up just the same as Jengis Khan and the proper Tartars did, so I will tell you something of it.
There is no more to say on this subject, so I shall proceed to tell you of a region in that quarter, in which there is perpetual darkness.
Chapter XXI: Concerning The Land Of Darkness
Still further north, and a long way beyond that kingdom of which I have spoken, there is a region which bears the name of Darkness, because neither sun nor moon nor stars appear, but it is always as dark as with us in the twilight. The people have no king of their own, nor are they subject to any foreigner, and live like beasts. They are dull of understanding, like half witted persons.
The Tartars however sometimes visit the country, and they do it in this way. They enter the region riding mares that have foals, and these foals they leave behind. After taking all the plunder that they can get they find their way back by help of the mares, which are all eager to get back to their foals, and find the way much better than their riders could do.
Those people have vast quantities of valuable peltry; thus they have those costly sables of which I spoke, and they have the ermine, the ercolin, the vair, the black fox, and many other valuable furs. They are all hunters by trade, and amass amazing quantities of those furs. And the people who are on their borders, where the light is, purchase all those furs from them; for the people of the land of darkness carry the furs to the light country for sale, and the merchants who purchase these make great gain thereby, I assure you.
The people of this region are tall and shapely, but very pale and colorless. One end of the country borders upon great Russia. And as there is no more to be said about it, I will now proceed, and first I will tell you about the province of Russia.
HERODOTUS AND THE HYPER-BOREANS (beyond-north wind)
Aristeas also, son of Caystrobius, a native of Proconnesus, says in the course of his poem that wrapt in Bacchic fury he went as far as the Issedones. Above them dwelt the Arimaspi, men with one eye; still further, the gold-guarding griffins; and beyond these, the Hyperboreans, who extended to the sea. Except the Hyperboreans, all these nations, beginning with the Arimaspi, were continually encroaching upon their neighbours. Hence it came to pass that the Arimaspi drove the Issedonians from their country, while the Issedonians dispossessed the Scyths; and the Scyths, pressing upon the Cimmerians, who dwelt on the shores of the Southern Sea, forced them to leave their land. Thus even Aristeas does not agree in his account of this region with the Scythians.
Of the Hyperboreans nothing is said either by the Scythians or by any of the other dwellers in these regions, unless it be the Issedonians. But in my opinion, even the Issedonians are silent concerning them; otherwise the Scythians would have repeated their statements, as they do those concerning the one-eyed men. Hesiod, however, mentions them, and Homer also in the Epigoni, if that be really a work of his.
But the persons who have by far the most to say on this subject are the Delians. They declare that certain offerings, packed in wheaten straw, were brought from the country of the Hyperboreans into Scythia, and that the Scythians received them and passed them on to their neighbours upon the west, who continued to pass them on until at last they reached the Adriatic. From hence they were sent southward, and when they came to Greece, were received first of all by the Dodonaeans. Thence they descended to the Maliac Gulf, from which they were carried across into Euboea, where the people handed them on from city to city, till they came at length to Carystus. The Carystians took them over to Tenos, without stopping at Andros; and the Tenians brought them finally to Delos. Such, according to their own account, was the road by which the offerings reached the Delians. Two damsels, they say, named Hyperoche and Laodice, brought the first offerings from the Hyperboreans; and with them the Hyperboreans sent five men to keep them from all harm by the way; these are the persons whom the Delians call "Perpherees," and to whom great honours are paid at Delos. Afterwards the Hyperboreans, when they found that their messengers did not return, thinking it would be a grievous thing always to be liable to lose the envoys they should send, adopted the following plan:- they wrapped their offerings in the wheaten straw, and bearing them to their borders, charged their neighbours to send them forward from one nation to another, which was done accordingly, and in this way the offerings reached Delos. I myself know of a practice like this, which obtains with the women of Thrace and Paeonia. They in their sacrifices to the queenly Diana bring wheaten straw always with their offerings. Of my own knowledge I can testify that this is so.
The damsels sent by the Hyperboreans died in Delos; and in their honour all the Delian girls and youths are wont to cut off their hair. The girls, before their marriage-day, cut off a curl, and twining it round a distaff, lay it upon the grave of the strangers. This grave is on the left as one enters the precinct of Diana, and has an olive-tree growing on it. The youths wind some of their hair round a kind of grass, and, like the girls, place it upon the tomb. Such are the honours paid to these damsels by the Delians.
They add that, once before, there came to Delos by the same road as Hyperoche and Laodice, two other virgins from the Hyperboreans, whose names were Arge and Opis. Hyperoche and Laodice came to bring to Ilithyia the offering which they had laid upon themselves, in acknowledgment of their quick labours; but Arge and Opis came at the same time as the gods of Delos,' and are honoured by the Delians in a different way. For the Delian women make collections in these maidens' names, and invoke them in the hymn which Olen, a Lycian, composed for them; and the rest of the islanders, and even the Ionians, have been taught by the Delians to do the like. This Olen, who came from Lycia, made the other old hymns also which are sung in Delos. The Delians add that the ashes from the thigh-bones burnt upon the altar are scattered over the tomb of Opis and Arge. Their tomb lies behind the temple of Diana, facing the east, near the banqueting-hall of the Ceians. Thus much then, and no more, concerning the Hyperboreans.
As for the tale of Abaris, who is said to have been a Hyperborean, and to have gone with his arrow all round the world without once eating, I shall pass it by in silence. Thus much, however, is clear: if there are Hyperboreans, there must also be Hypernotians.
Some say that Thule is the capital of the Hyperboreans. Many others have written about dwellers beyond north wind, for instance, the Cimmerians seem to be the dwellers of the land of Darkness:
Cimmerians are a type of human who live in a rough, cold land of eternal twilight located near one of the physical entrances to the Underworld. Cimmerians tend to be tall and strong, standing over six feet and weighing more than 180 pounds. They have dark hair and dark eyes, but their skin is pallid. Their lifespans are typically human.
Gigantes are large mountain-dwellers noted for their great strength and tenacity. Gigantes appear much like large humans, although their features are exaggerated, such as busy eyebrows, enlarged canine teeth, large ears, et cetera. The average gigant stands nearly eight feet tall and weighs more than 450 pounds. Despite their brutish appearance, gigantes are not exceptionally war-like or violent. They are a simple people, enjoying hard work, large meals, and - amazingly - vigorous dancing. In some regions, there is a history of conflict between gigantes and dwarfs over living space. Gigantes have lifespans comparable to half-elfs
The Hyperboreans are another off-shoot of the ubiquitous human race. Just as some say the Cimmerians are cursed, others say the Hyperboreans are blessed. Although Hyperborea is a wild, arctic land, the people there live in complete harmony and comfort even in the dead of the harshest winter. Hyperboreans appear very much human. They are unremarkable in terms of height or weight. Their hair tends towards lighter colors, as do their eyes. Regardless of season, a Hyperborean's skin is a golden tan. Hyperboreans are remarkably long-lived, comparable to gnomes. Hyperboreans are a cheerful, welcoming people, who live in small towns carved into cliffs of ice. They are masterful fishermen, hunters, and many cultivate rich beds of arctic kelp.
In the mathematical model of the earth all around the Arctic Circle is very cold, and doesn't fit at all to the reports of many Arctic Researchers, as the followings:
In `Captain Hall's Last Trip' we read:
"We find this a much warmer country than we expected, bare of snow and ice. We have found that the country abounds with life, and with seals, game, geese, ducks, musk-cattle, rabbits, wolves, foxes, bears, partridges, lemmings, etc. (He is speaking of the far north.)
"Nansen draws special attention to the warmth and says, `We must almost imagine ourselves at home.' This was at one of the farthest points north reached by anyone, and yet the weather was mild and pleasant.
"It will be observed that these extremely strong winds from the interior of the earth not only raise the temperature considerably in the vicinity of the Arctic Ocean, but affect it very materially four hundred and fifty miles away. Nothing could raise the temperature in such a manner, except a storm coming from the interior of the earth.
"Greely states: `Surely this presence of birds and flowers and beasts was a greeting on nature's part to our new home.' Does that sound as if he had expected to find these things there, or that their presence was an everyday occurrence? No. It was written in a tone of surprise. From what place had these birds and game come? South of them for miles, the earth was covered with perpetual snow - in many locations thousands of feet deep. They are found in that location in summer; and as it is warmer farther north, they would not be likely to go to a colder climate in winter. They seem to pass into the interior of the earth.
"The mutton-birds of Australia leave that continent in September, and no one has ever been able to find out where they go. My theory is that they pass into the interior of the earth via the South Pole. "
Reed points out that many animals inhabiting the far north, as the musk-ox, go north in winter in order to reach a warmer climate. He remarks:
"Since it becomes warmer as they go north, instinct tells them not to go south in winter. And if they do not go south, they must go into the interior of the earth."
Another animal that goes north in winter is the auk. Schwatka saw a flock of four million auks, which darken the sky, going north as winter approached. Nansen says of the extreme north that a land which teems with bears, auks and black guillemots "must be a Canaan, flowing with milk and honey."
Of course, none of these fits at all with the mathematicians in their invented spherical earth.
1000 Hours- We are crossing over the small mountain range and still proceeding northward as best as can be ascertained. Beyond the mountain range is what appears to be a valley with a small river or stream running through the center portion. There should be no green valley below! Something is definitely wrong and abnormal here! We should be over Ice and Snow! To the portside are great forests growing on the mountain slopes. Our navigation Instruments are still spinning, the gyroscope is oscillating back and forth!
1005 Hours- I alter altitude to 1400 feet and execute a sharp left turn to better examine the valley below. It is green with either moss or a type of tight knit grass. The Light here seems different. I cannot see the Sun anymore. We make another left turn and we spot what seems to be a large animal of some kind below us. It appears to be an elephant! NO!!! It looks more like a mammoth! This is incredible! Yet, there it is! Decrease altitude to 1000 feet and take binoculars to better examine the animal. It is confirmed - it is definitely a mammoth-like animal! Report this to base camp.
"Once again we have penetrated an unknown and mysterious land which does not appear on today's maps. And once again we find no announcement beyond the initial announcement of the achievement. And, strangest of all, we find the world's millions absorbing the announcements and registering a complete blank in so far as curiosity is concerned."
Some of this evidence was hidden away in the stomachs of the mammoths themselves. The last meal of the Berezovka mammoth - found north of the Arctic Circle- consisted of "twenty-four pounds of undigested vegetation". (Brown p. 113) This stomachful was found to include over forty types of plants and mosses, some no longer found in these northern regions. Many of these plants are found in much more temperate climes. Other animals were found with undigested beans, beanpods and buttercup seeds in their mouths and stomachs. Also, buried in the same deposits with many of these mammoths were fruit (plum) trees as well as mammals associated with more temperate regions; tigers, horses, rhinoceroses and others. (We never read about "woolly rhinoceroses", yet there have been at least seven authenticated rhinoceros findings north of the 60th parallel in Siberia (Brown pp.108-109)). The very fact that animals the size of mammoths could survive in a given location requires an ample supply of food
From April 26th, 1894:
" I was not a little surprised yesterday morning when I suddenly saw the track of an animal in the snow. It was that of a fox, came about W. S. W. true, and went in an easterly direction. The trail was quite fresh. What in the world was the fox doing up here? There were also unequivocal signs that it had not been without food. Were we in the vicinity of land? I looked around for it, but the weather was thick all day yesterday, and we might have been near it without seeing it. In any case, a warm-blooded mamal in the eighty-fifth parallel. We had not gone far before we came across another fox-track; it went in about the same direction as the other, and followed the trend of the lane which had stopped us and by which we had been obliged to camp. It is incomprehensible what these animals live on up here, but presumably they are able to snap up some crustaceans in the open water ways. But why do they leave the coasts? That is what puzzles me most. Can they have gone astray? There seems little probablity of that."